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International Human Rights Law

This task is divided into 2 pats during the class you have to read the articles and use external resources to identify

a)the reasons behind the Darfur Crisis
b)what are the human rights been violated?
c)mention the role of the NGOs in this crisis

Sample Answer

Introduction
The report is going to discuss about the ongoing conflict in the western region of Sudan, which is native land of the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa as well as nomadic tribes who are ethnically black and religiously Muslim. Besides, it will elaborate areas of violating human rights and the role of NGOs serving the community under this crisis. As acknowledged by the researchers and various sources the central reason behind such internal armed conflict is ethnicity of the tribe over there (Ali: 509). Moreover, oil and desertification play the part of crucial drivers behind this national issue. Since the year of 2003, the region has been experiencing high intensity of violence, innumerable death and displacement. The purpose is to provide a detail insight of the current situation as well as its future direction.

The Reasons Behind Darfur Crisis
As per the concept shared by YouTube 2018, the conflict of Darfur began when Sudan Liberation Movement coupled with the Justice and Equality movement jointly announce opposition against the Sudanese Government for oppressing native people of Darfur region.

Ethnicity
People from Arabic background and with Islamic religious views are the native of northern part of Sudan, whereas southern part consists of black people following Christianity. The unique factor of the western part is that by origin they are black yet considers Islam as their religion. The capital city, Khartoum is an authorized slave market where black people are sold as slave. Therefore, people from Arabic origin take the pride within and look down upon the communities from southern and western region of the country considering them as potential slaves. Western part being black, at the same time followers of Islam receive more hatred and isolation.

Oil Conflict
Oil works as a representative of international interference to the internal matters of the country. Whereas, the southern part has the source of crude oil, the northern part has the port in the bank of Red Sea. The country exports oil to Malaysia, Japan, India and Russia. However, 70% of the oil exportation goes to China (Herman). Unfortunately, although, southern region is the supplier yet the payments are confined under the Capital city of Khartoum. The southern part of Sudan was amazed by the fact that why they are not getting any benefits of advanced infrastructure though the money is coming from their contribution mostly. This resulted in the emergence of ‘Sudanese civil war’, which started in 1983 and continued until 2005. Eventually, the south Sudan won after 22 years of internal turmoil and secured 49% of the oil revenues, which means from then on they started to avail the advantages of education and health care. Considering the type of ethnicity, the community of Darfur with the hope of achieving infrastructure, decided to announce revolt against Sudanese Government (Totten and Markusen). The response from the government was harsh as they were under pressure regarding newly established peace with south. As described in Olsson and Siba: 310, they started a campaign termed as ‘ethnic cleansing’ with the help of China as they consume 70% of oil in returned they promised to help Sudanese Government with financial and military aid, which resulted in death and violence along with violating the code of human rights.

Desertification
Another major issue related to this region is desertification of vast areas within a short period (Selby and Clemens Hoffmann: 370). It has made the lifestyle of the Darfur region even harder, not close enough which they used to have previously. The extended result of ethnic hatred and prolonged war as well as according to Theisen et al: 615, the climate situation made the area difficult for cultivation as well as surviving.

Violation Of Human Rights
Darfur conflict is an example of government-associated violence in collaboration with China, against the natives, belong to different ethnic and linguistic groups live in Western part of the Sudan, Darfur. The Darfur region has been experiencing high intensity of violence, violating human rights on multiple levels both the form of physical and psychological. It is unfortunate that being the protector of rights how Sudanese Government has been exploiting human rights by leaving the natives with fear of being attacked or losing their habitat and physical abuse of women and children (Jumbert, Gabrielsen: 289). It has crossed all the barriers of endurance resulting displacement of 2.5 million people approximately. The intensity of the violation has been estimated with the context of African constitution and culture, universal human rights charter and finally adopting a philosophical approach. The state did not take the responsibility to protect the rights of women (article 1) and let them face the horror of rape and the acts of Janjaweed violated the act of individual liberty and security (article 20) by holding women as sex slaves. Such practice of torture is undoubtedly violation of human rights from a cultural and constitutional context of Sudan. Destruction of property with intentional attack is the reason behind displacement as well as from a philosophical approach the continuous practice of violence is morally wrong, as according to Hobbes, “What you do not want done to you, do not do unto others”.

Role Of NGOs
According to various surveys like (Yagub and Mtshali: 1052), performed on the role of NGOs on the crisis of Darfur region state that:

The NGOs have provided effective human rights training to the natives, which has become successful on raising awareness among the people of Darfur region.
As per the opinion of respondents, the role of these organisations is not sufficient in terms of establishing peace. The collaboration of government is needed to do that effectively. The role of traditional leaders are notable in terms of bringing peace among the local communities.
In order to promote social stability NGOs have initiated ‘income generating facilities’ which has enabled distressed families to bring moderate income. NGOs has taken part in developing the infrastructure as well like the process of establishing schools, hospitals and youth training centres.
Conclusion
The conclusion can be drawn stating that the role of NGOs as comparing to the intensity of violence and violation of human rights are consistent and moderate. It is very difficult to execute agendas in the midst of such international complications. Oil is the central driver of including international powers into the conflict. Arabian Muslims of northern Sudan should understand the sensitivity of humanity over the pride of origin and either ethnic hatred or prolonged wars both are hindrance in the path of prosperity. Therefore, Government should realise what they are doing to their country involving foreign powers into the internal matters.

References
Ali, Hamid E. "Estimate of the economic cost of armed conflict: A case study from Darfur." Defence and Peace Economics24.6 (2013): 503-519.

Herman, Fanie. "The role and influence of Chinese bureaucrats towards peacekeeping decision making in the United Nations mission in Darfur (UNAMID): 2005 to 2012." Asian Journal of Management Science and Economics Vol 2.1 (2015).

Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen. "How Sudan’s ‘rogue’state label shaped US responses to the Darfur conflict: what’s the problem and who’s in charge?." Third World Quarterly 35.2 (2014): 284-299.

Olsson, Ola, and Eyerusalem Siba. "Ethnic cleansing or resource struggle in Darfur? An empirical analysis." Journal of Development Economics 103 (2013): 299-312.

Selby, Jan, and Clemens Hoffmann. "Beyond scarcity: rethinking water, climate change and conflict in the Sudans." Global Environmental Change 29 (2014): 360-370.

Theisen, Ole Magnus, Nils Petter Gleditsch, and Halvard Buhaug. "Is climate change a driver of armed conflict?." Climatic change 117.3 (2013): 613-625.

Totten, Samuel, and Eric Markusen. Genocide in Darfur: Investigating the atrocities in the Sudan. Routledge, 2013.

Yagub, Abdallah IA, and Khondlo Mtshali. "The role of non-governmental organizations in providing curative health services in North Darfur State, Sudan." African health sciences 15.3 (2015): 1049-1055.

YouTube 2018. "Darfur In 10 Minutes: An Overview Of The Conflict In Sudan". Youtube, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USLDoIiFzzg. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.

 

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